Best Available Techniques (BATs), defined in the Industrial Emissions Directive, are in essence the most effective techniques to achieve the prevention of environment and reduction of the emissions and environmental impacts while providing emission limit values and permit conditions.
It must be emphasized that BATs do not only refer to the technology used at an installation, but also to the way the installation is designed, built, operated, and maintained. Some BATs are a simple consequence of common sense and do not involve any investment.
In practice, to know if a given technique can be considered as a BAT, the following criteria must be considered:
- If the technique is mentioned as a BAT in any of the BAT Reference Documents (BREFs), then it is a BAT.
- If it is not mentioned as a BAT in any of the BREFs, the technique should be evaluated taking into account the criteria listed in Annex III of the By-Law on Integrated Environmental Permits, to see whether it can be considered as a BAT or not. Those criteria are the following: